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A privilege is generally defined as an advantage, right, or benefit that is not available to everyone.

In the healthcare context, privileging is the process whereby a specific scope and content of a patient care service (clinical privileges) is authorized for a healthcare practitioner by a healthcare organization, based on an evaluation of the individual’s credentials and performance.

Privileges are granted by the governance of a healthcare organization after such evaluation of the education and training the provider has presented.

From The Joint Commission at

Privilege can also refer to rights or immunity created under the attorney-client privilege or peer review privilege. Such privileges are evidentiary rules that shield communication in the course of the protected relationship from discovery at trial.