A privilege is generally defined as an advantage, right, or benefit that is not available to everyone.
In the healthcare context, privileging is the process whereby a specific scope and content of a patient care service (clinical privileges) is authorized for a healthcare practitioner by a healthcare organization, based on an evaluation of the individual’s credentials and performance.
Privileges are granted by the governance of a healthcare organization after such evaluation of the education and training the provider has presented.
From The Joint Commission at http://www.jointcommission.org/chat_blog_post_share__lets_talk_ambulatory_with_michael/guest_blogger_virginia_mccollum_credentialing_and_privileging--what_is_it____part_i_of_3/.
Privilege can also refer to rights or immunity created under the attorney-client privilege or peer review privilege. Such privileges are evidentiary rules that shield communication in the course of the protected relationship from discovery at trial.